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80115-0008 - Tea Plantation and Toji Pagoda, Kyoto, 1890s

Kyoto 1890s
Tea Field and Toji Pagoda

Artist Unknown
Publisher Unknown
Medium Albumen Print
Period Meiji
Location Kyoto
Image No. 80115-0008
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Many people who have visited Toji temple’s‘s wonderful temple markets will be astounded by this rural image of tea fields with the five-story pagoda of Toji in the background. The tea fields have long since dissapeared and the temple is now surrounded by busy roads and modern buildings.

In the middle of this photo, believed to have been taken before 1895 (Meiji 28), the roof of the Kondo (main hall) can be seen, with the Kanjouin (灌頂院), used for special rituals like prayers for the emperor’s safety (天皇の安泰を祈願する儀式), to its left.

In front of these two buildings are a row of minka (traditional houses).1

Located near Kyoto Station, Toji (literally East Temple) is a Buddhist temple of the Shingon sect. Together with Saiji (West Temple), it flanked the road to the entrance gate to Kyoto known as Rashomon (also: Rajomon). The two temples were meant to protect the capital from evil.

Sadly, Saiji was destroyed by fire in the 13th century and not rebuilt. Toji also succumbed to fire several times, but was rebuilt each time.

The temple was established in 796, just two years after the capital was moved to Kyoto, but construction did not proceed smoothly. In 823, the important Buddhist scholar and monk Kobo-Daishi (also: Kukai) was asked by Emperor Saga to finish the project. This decision would eventually ensure the establishment of Shingon as an independent Buddhist movement. Therefore, Toji plays an important role in Japanese Buddhism.

70521-4055 - Toji Pagoda, Kyoto, 2009
The Toji Pagoda in Kyoto, 2009 (Heisei 21).

Kobo-Daishi built the pagoda in 826. However, it burned to the ground after being struck by lightning. It was rebuilt three times and struck again and again. The pagoda on this photo was built in 1644 by Tokugawa Iemitsu. It is still there. At 57 meters high, it is the tallest wooden tower in Japan.2

Toji is a wonderful place to visit when the temple markets take place. There are actually two. A big one on the 21st of each month, featuring everything from food, plants and used kimono to antiques. And a smaller one focusing on antiques, on the first Sunday of every month.

During the market, the pagoda is a great place to escape the milling crowds. Surrounded by a neatly kept traditional garden with a pond filled with koi carps, it allows you to relax and while away the hours.

Along with 16 other locations (Historic Monuments of Ancient Kyoto), Toji was designated a World Heritage Site in 1994 (Heisei 6).

91101-5142 - Toji temple pagoda in Kyoto
Kyoto's Toji temple in 2009 (Heisei 21), photographed from approximately the same location.

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1 白幡洋三郎 (2004). 幕末・維新彩色の京都, 京都: 京都新聞出版センター, 86, 87. ISBN 4763805312

2 弘法市~東寺縁日, 東寺教王護国寺. Retrieved on 2008-03-28.


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Reference for Citations

Duits, Kjeld (). Kyoto 1890s: Tea Field and Toji Pagoda, OLD PHOTOS of JAPAN. Retrieved on March 22, 2023 (GMT) from

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